https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/issue/feed Indian Journal of Commerce and Management Studies 2022-01-13T13:43:36+00:00 Mr. Mohammed Aatif editor@ijcms.in Open Journal Systems <p>For the past ten years, We, <strong>Educational Research Multimedia and Publications, India</strong> exhibited true commitment and excellence in inculcating high-quality research which is recognized by UGC also. We are a proud publisher of research contributions from global authors in the areas of Arts, Commerce, Management, Education and Social Sciences. Being headed by a team of Eminent Scientists, Professors, Professionals, Researchers, Key Opinion Leaders, Industrialists, our board of management holds 25+ years of collective experience in publishing research and educational materials. Our publications are open-access, double-blind peer-reviewed, plagiarism-free, updated and application-oriented that suit the current trends.</p> <p><strong>Indian Journal of Commerce &amp; Management Studies </strong>is owned and managed by <strong>Educational Research Multimedia and Publications, India. </strong>IJCMS is an open access peer review Tri-Annual research journal that publishes articles in the field of commerce &amp; management. The journal serves as a bridge between worldwide scholars and commerce and management studies researchers. The journal publishes research articles and papers in all areas of commerce and management. The journal aims to provide the most complete and reliable source of information on recent developments in business studies. Each issue brings you critical perspectives and cogent analyses, serving as an outlet for the best theoretical and research work in the field. The purpose of the journal is to further the understanding of the theory and practice of business studies by publishing articles of interest to practitioners and scholars.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong> Call for Papers - Volume XIV, Issue 1, January 2023</strong></p> <p> Please submit to <a href="mailto:editor@ijcms.in">editor@ijcms.in</a> or<strong> <a href="http://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/submit">Click here</a> </strong>as per<strong> <a href="http://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/submission">Submission Guidelines</a></strong></p> https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/411 Inside the American Business Mind 2022-01-11T12:38:46+00:00 Jonathan Poston M.E. editor@scholarshub.net <p>.</p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/412 Study on Customer Perception towards Online-Ticketing in Malaysia 2022-01-11T12:42:22+00:00 Seyed Rajab Nikhashemi editor@scholarshub.net Farzana Yasmin editor@scholarshub.net Ahasanul Haque editor@scholarshub.net Ali Khatibi editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>This paper gives a report of a study that investigated peoples’ perception of online buying tickets (e-ticketing) as well as why some people use this facility while some who do not use it stick to the traditional way to fulfill their needs. In addition, factors such as what inform peoples’ eagerness and unwillingness to use internet facilities are also examined. The outcome of this research showed a comprehensively integrated framework that can be utilized by policy makers and business enterprises to understand the dynamic relationships among dimensions of perceived risk, user trustworthiness, usefulness, familiarity and confidence. Also, this study considered how price perception and internet security can be utilized to understand the consumers’ perception. However, further research is needed to examine these factors in Malaysia with additional samples before generalization can be made. Moreover, it is also necessary to review consumers’ purchasing behavior in making the decision to use the internet as a means of buying online rather than the traditional way.</em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/413 Factors Influencing the Overall Customer Satisfaction of the Wireless Internet Service Users: An Empirical Study in Bangladesh 2022-01-11T13:10:19+00:00 Mujahid Mohiuddin Babu editor@scholarshub.net Panuel Rozario Prince editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>With the rapid development of wireless internet technology and heavy usage of internet services, wireless internet service has been widely adopted in Bangladesh. </em><em>Although the subject of customer satisfaction has been discussed worldwide extensively in the literature of information systems, e-commerce and marketing, the exploration of antecedents to customer satisfaction with wireless internet service is still in its infancy in Bangladesh.</em><em> This study has explored and identified seven specific factors, which act as the significant determinants of the overall customer satisfaction of the wireless internet service users in Bangladesh. The findings confirm that Webpage Content Visualization, Availability of Customer Care Centre, Post-purchase Tele Sale, Average Download Data Rate, Participative Programs, Rate of Network Failure and Setup Charge contribute to forming the overall customer satisfaction with the wireless internet service in Bangladesh. This paper ends with a brief discussion of the business implications of the research findings.</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/414 Day of Week Effect: Evidences from Indian Stock Market 2022-01-11T13:16:14+00:00 Dr. Sanjeet Sharma editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>This study has been undertaken to examine whether day of week effect exist in Indian Stock Market or not. To analyses whether anomalies exist in India the data has been collected for the period form January 2008 to December 2009 for two indices: Sensex and Nifty. The results of this study show that the day of the week effect&nbsp; do not exist in the Indian Stock Market and this market can be considered as informationally efficient. Monday Effect and Friday Effect are also found insignificant while comparing Friday and Monday returns with other days mean returns. The above indicates that the Indian Stock Markets efficient now a days in years 2008 and 2009. The&nbsp; study suggest to investors&nbsp; that the non existence of anomalies may not provide opportunities to formulate profitable trading strategies so as to earn the abnormal return and can adopt a fair return for risk strategy</em><em>.</em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/415 National Culture and Team Role Preference: A Case of Pakistan 2022-01-11T13:18:47+00:00 Ibn-e-Hassan editor@scholarshub.net Muhammad Shakil Ahmad editor@scholarshub.net Muhammad Jawad Iqbal editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>The subject of Project Management has influenced the various fields of study including Development Sciences and Engineering Sciences. The researchers, academicians and practitioners have shown their curiosity and concerns about the challenges faced by the mainstream Project Management’s Concepts and tools. A consensus has developed to build the field from its current conceptual base to more practical oriented theory. The purpose of this research was two fold, firstly; to apply the Belbin Team Role Self Perception Inventory (BTRSPI) to the teams of Pakistan (graduate students) in order to investigate about the most emerging/preferred, (primary) team roles of the graduate students who were intended to serve various national and international companies, secondly; to ascertain the relationship between the team roles and culture of country. The result of the study validated most of the findings of Belbin (1981);Fisher et al (1998 ) and Dulewicz (1995). It was observed that among other factors, national culture influences the team role selection. The culture theory of Hofstede (1991) and Khilji (1999) elaborated the cultural reasons for the selection of the roles of coordinator, implementer, shaper and team workers in the context of Pakistani culture. It was also deliberated in the cultural context that why there are not more “Plants” roles in the student’s project teams in this country. It is very basic research aiming at drawing the attention of the academicians and practitioners to this particular topic</em><em>.</em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/416 Bridging the Gap through E-Recruitment: Evidences from Private Employment Sector in Karachi 2022-01-11T13:22:16+00:00 Naveed Ur Rehman Khan editor@scholarshub.net Dr. S. M. Taha editor@scholarshub.net Arsalan Mujahid Ghouri editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>Internet has proved as the most powerful social network that has deep impact on our society and has become catalyst in the process of globalization.&nbsp; Recent trends and data reveal that internet is being used in employment sector globally. Job searching through internet in Pakistan is deemed uncommon. This research measures the usage of internet for job searching in Pakistan which has not been investigated in Pakistan’s perspective before. The results assessed the positive trend of online job searching activities which develop considerably. Five motivators of Job seekers were consider in this study, “time saving” is the leading motivator followed by “browsing wide area of employment”, “global employment pool”, “easiness” and “cost effective” respectively. These motivators motivate job seekers to go for online search for employment. </em><em>The study recommends HR managers of Private sectors to focus more on online recruitment in Pakistan to attract large number of potential employees in less time and investing more on developing online recruitment tool to get large return on investment in long term perspective</em><em>.</em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/417 Value Added, Productivity and Performance of Few Selected Companies in Sri Lanka 2022-01-11T13:25:47+00:00 Prof. Dr .T. Velnampy editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>Productivity is a measure of the rate at which inputs are transformed in to output. Hence productivity provides the technical relationship that exists between inputs and outputs. </em><em>Productivity is actually looking at the more general issue of performance. Performance covers both overall economic and operational aspects. It can be described as the success of a company and its activities. So that value added, productivity and performance are closely inter connected. This paper attempt to measure the productivity of the 15 financial companies listed under the CSE using value added ratios such as (i) sales per employee ratio, (ii) labour cost to value added ratio, (iii) profit before tax to employee ratio, (iv) labour cost to sales ratio, and (vi) value added to employee ratio and to measure the performance with the ratios of (i) gross profit ratio,(ii) value added per rupee of fixed asset, (iii) return on capital employed, and (iv) </em><em>net profit ratio using data representing the period of 2005-2009. The study finds that </em><em>profit before tax per employee and value added per rupee of fixed asset (VAFA) is positively correlated and labour cost to sales (LS) and gross profit (GP) is also positively correlated. Further the labour cost to value added (LVA) is correlated with gross profit (GP) and value added per rupee of fixed asset and no relationship between the rest of the productivity and performance measures. R<sup>2</sup> value of 0.471, 0.315, 0.198 and 0.887 (In all for models) which are in the models denote that 47.1%, 31.5%, 19.8%, and 88.7% of the observed variability in GP, NP, ROCE, and VAFA respectively in all the independent variables such as SE,VE,PE,LS, and LVA. Remaining 52.9%, 68.5%, 80.2% and 11.3% of the variance in GP, NP, ROCE, and VAFA related to other variables which are not explained, because they are not depicted in the models</em><em>.</em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/418 Global Financial Crisis and Life Insurance Sector in India – A Comparative Study of LIC with Private Sector 2022-01-11T13:29:01+00:00 Dr.Venugopalan K.V. editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>Life insurance is a fast growing service sector in India during the last eleven years after the entrance of private sector in this field. The low penetration and low insurance density has made this sector as a fast developing sector in India. The insurance sector contributes 5.2 per cent of GDP in 2011. The global meltdown and&nbsp;&nbsp; consequent economic recession in developed economies have clearly been major&nbsp;&nbsp; factor in India’s economic slowdown. The saving nature of the Indian’s led the country in a better position even in the eve of global financial crisis. The&nbsp;&nbsp; insurance sector shows a setback during the years 2007-08 and 2008-09 due to the global meltdown. The life insurance sector had able to overcome the short time setback mainly because of the investment attitude of the people in the country and made the financial year 2009-10 in a growth stage .The&nbsp; results of the insurance companies during the year 2010-11 also show an upward trend. This clearly indicates that life insurance sector will continue to grow in future because of the peculiar nature of the inhabitants in the country and also due to huge untapped potential in this sector in the country. The increase in</em><em> disposable income, aging population, no universal life cover and tax benefits to life insurance products make life insurance market an attractive proposition for insurance companies.</em> <em>The crisis made the insurance companies more competitive in their products and efficient&nbsp;&nbsp; in their administration leads to better products to the consumers.</em><em>Untapped rural markets, lower consumer preference and constrained distribution channels are understood to be the reasons for the lower levels of penetration. And more reforms will certainly make this growing sector appear more attractive for existing and newer participants.</em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/419 An Analysis of Indian Financial System and Its Effect over Indian Economy 2022-01-11T13:33:04+00:00 Ghausia Mushtaq editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>The financial system develops a link in between savings and investment through its various components like financial institutions, financial markets, financial services etc., thereby channelizing the funds or flow of funds from the ultimate lender to ultimate borrower and thereby paving ways for economic development. </em><em>The current analysis is focusing on the Indian Financial System and its role in the economic development of the nation. The saving and investment pattern and its effect of the GDP the capital formation and its importance for the economic growth and the credit creation theory that helps to understand the link of financial system to the economic growth. The current paper also focuses on the patterns of relationship between economic development and financial system. It is an attempt to understand the symbiotic relationship between the financial system and economic development. </em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/420 An Empirical Study on the Impulsive Buying Behavior in Women and Factors Affecting Such Behavior 2022-01-11T13:35:51+00:00 Mrs. Prerna Nair editor@scholarshub.net Mrs. Jaya B. Rathor editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>Consumer Studies is a very explorative field and the purpose of this study is to establish a link between growing number of facilities provided to the consumers and increase in their impulsive (unplanned) buying experiences. The research was started with the basic objective to study the buying behavior of women with special references to their unplanned buying experiences. The association of such provocational factors and their impact on working and non-working women were studied. A structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents and responses were generated from various locations in Raipur city (capital city of Chhattisgarh State). </em><em>Various statistical tools were used to find out the associations for such an instant behavior. The study reveals the impulse buying behavior in women and the driving forces behind such a behavior on occupational basis. </em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/421 Supply Chain Performance Improvement 2022-01-11T13:40:33+00:00 Dr. Suresh Reddy Jakka editor@scholarshub.net M. Madhu Mohan editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>This Paper deals with business renovation, effective utilization of Information technology and the role of business process modelling in supply Chain integration projects. The main idea is to show how the performance of the supply chain can be improved with the integration of various tiers in the Supply Chain. Integration is prerequisite for effective sharing and utilization of information between different companies in the chain. Simulation –based Methodology for measuring the benefits combine the simulation of business Processes with the simulation of supply and demand. The theoretical Findings are illustrated with the case study of procurement process in petrol Company. Old and renewed business process models are shown. The changes in lead-times, process execution costs, and quality of the process and Inventory costs are estimated</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></strong></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/422 Delegation and Coordination: Tools for Effective School Management 2022-01-11T13:43:52+00:00 Dr. Purna Prabhakar Nandamuri editor@scholarshub.net Dr.K.V.Rao editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>There is an increasing awareness around the world for incorporating professional management into traditional public services. Similar trend has been encompassing the school education sector in the form of school based management. It would be appropriate to analyze the prevailing practices of school management in the context of similar reforms being initiated in India. This paper is an integral part of the doctoral dissertation in management area – ‘A study of Management Practices of Secondary Schools’. The objective of this paper is to explore the status of delegation and coordination aspects of school management. A sample of 188 secondary schools was selected through stratified sampling technique. The primary data was collected through self designed questionnaire and interview schedules. Chi-Square Test and simple percentages were used to analyze the data with the help of SPSS-17. The findings reveal that more delegation to be facilitated by the educational administrators. Despite the dearth of coordination committees, the nature of coordination between the school head and staff and among the staff members is good. The study suggests the policy makers to facilitate faster reforms and enhance accountability</em><em>.</em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/423 The Impact of Career Choice on Job Satisfaction among Employees in Ghana 2022-01-11T14:07:25+00:00 Evans Sokro editor@scholarshub.net Noble Osei-Bonsu editor@scholarshub.net Ruby Melody Agbola editor@scholarshub.net Ebenezer Ankrah editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>This research was designed to investigate the relationship that exists between career choice and job satisfaction among employees in Ghana. Data was collected from 280 employees working in different organisations including Banking, Telecommunication, Education and Health sectors. The relationship between Career choice and Career satisfaction was tested using chi-square. It was found that employees who make the right career choice are more likely to be satisfied with their job. The relationship between job satisfaction and employee performance was also tested using chi-square. The results provided direct evidence that employees who are satisfied with their job are more likely to perform well on the job. Also, the results support the view that internal and external factors including personality type should be considered in making career decisions. Accordingly, employees are encouraged to have a sober reflection on their core interests and abilities before making a career choice. They should ensure that the fundamental factors that will guarantee job satisfaction and positive performance, serve as motivators in the career decision making process. Likewise, employers should be interested in interest tests as a selection tool for new employees</em><em>.</em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/424 Intrapreneurship as Competitive Strategy for Talent Retention – Facilitating Factors and the Indian Context 2022-01-11T14:11:43+00:00 Dr. C. Barathi editor@scholarshub.net Dr. C. D. Balaji editor@scholarshub.net Dr. CH. Ibohal Meitei editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>Intrapreneurship is possibly the best way to keep talented staff, promote creativity, and optimally use company resources. Intrapreneurship in business today encompasses a variety of concepts which include: identifying and fostering employees who have intrapreneurial traits, developing an intrapreneurial process followed by organization wide dissemination of information regarding the process and developing innovation through rewarding intrapreneurial behaviour. In India, most of the companies operate stable businesses quite efficiently, but what is lacking is developing a new business from the idea stage through to research and development and successful commercialization. The organization’s capacity to innovate is greatly diminished because of the failure to identify, support and encourage innovative ideas which can be turned out to successful commercial products and services. Employees who feel that their innovative ideas are not given due recognition quit their jobs to start enterprises of their own. With India, becoming a preferred destination of MNC’s, and the economy expanding, attracting and retaining talent is a source of competitive advantage. The need of the hour is for people who are creators rather than followers. One feature of the organization that promotes intrapreneurship is that it encourages and successfully implements enough creative ideas to make a surplus of fruitful opportunities for all its employees. This paper discusses the evolution of the concept of intrapreneurship, previous studies and view points of experts, the need for intrapreneuship, the benefits of intrapreneurship to the company and employees, few cases of successful intrapreneurship in organisations and the intrapreneurial scenario in the Indian context</em><em>.</em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/425 Relationship between Service Quality and Behavioural Consequences in Telecom Sector 2022-01-11T14:23:29+00:00 Dr. Sandhya Joshi editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>The influence of service quality and customer satisfaction on complaint behaviour has rarely been studied to date. However, for effective service recovery, it is imperative to know who ends the relationship, who recommends the others to go for the service provider and who complains to the company. This paper provides a framework on how three loyalty types react to a critical incident causing dissatisfaction. Truly loyal customers are expected to complain instead of leaving, whereas disloyal consumers will prefer to choose exit. </em><em>Considering loyalty for explaining complaining behaviour will support managers in develo-ping effective customer care concepts as well as focusing on the most valuable customers, the truly loyal and profitable ones</em><em>.</em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/427 Factors Effecting Patient Satisfaction in Private Sector Hospitals: A Case Study of West Bengal 2022-01-11T14:58:57+00:00 Soumik Gangopadhyay editor@scholarshub.net Dr. Bidyut Kumar Ghosh editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>Satisfaction of the customers in the private sector hospital service depends on a set of factors including the physical factors like quality of treatment rendered to the patients, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, tangibles i.e. convenience created psychological factors like care taken cost to the patients and monetary factors like the cost required to access the services provided by the hospitals. Based on a field survey data collected from the privately owned hospitals in West Bengal, the present study aims to identify the factors responsible for patient satisfaction and thereby to gauge its effect on the brand-image of the hospitals. The study clearly shows a strong association between the factors such as care, quality of treatment and cost of service with the customers i.e., patients satisfaction. The study concludes a paradigm shift in the Indian hospital industry as the customer preference to choose a service is changing</em><em>. </em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/428 Leverage and Financing Decision –An Empirical Analysis 2022-01-11T15:17:17+00:00 Aniruddha Sarkar editor@scholarshub.net Suvarun Goswami editor@scholarshub.net <p align="justify"><em>In the process of selection of a target debt-equity mix, a company analyses a number of factors, one of such factors is the consideration of leverage. The management employs this tool, more often than not, to increase the company’s return on net worth and more so when it is impossible to improve operating efficiency of the company and increasing the return on total investment. The study is divided into two parts- conceptual framework and case study. In the present article an endeavor has been made to through some light on the business risk, financial risk, financial break-even point and total risk of Hindustan Construction Company Limited by means of computing the degree of association between the various leverage ratios with the well-known profitability indicator viz. return on net worth (RONW), and statistical test viz.‘t’ test has been used to test the significance of the results of the empirical study. Ultimately, the article concludes with some valid recommendations which deserve the attention of the concerned company under study and government.&nbsp; </em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/445 A Study on Performance Evaluation of Dinesh Mills Ltd 2022-01-13T13:31:53+00:00 Dr. Sanjay J. Bhayani editor@ijcms.in Dr. Butalal Ajmera editor@ijcms.in <p align="justify"><em>This paper aims at evaluating the performance of Dinesh Mills Ltd in terms of comparative and common size income statements. The trend is also projected for the next five years. The study reveals that there was a significant increase in the reported net profit during the year 2006-07. This was because of significant reduction in the in the material cost and employee cost. There was also economy There is also economy in power and fuel cost during the same period. The company has to pay more attention in maintain/reducing power and fuel so as to have increased wealth to the shareholders</em><em>.</em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/446 Evaluating Performance of Regional Rural Banks: An Application of Camel Model 2022-01-13T13:36:28+00:00 Dr. D. Maheshwara Reddy editor@ijcms.in K. V. N. Prasad editor@ijcms.in <p align="justify"><em>The regional rural banks would be a ‘model financial infrastructure’ for rural development with patronage and encouragement given by planners in the field. Thus, the State sponsored, regionally based and rural oriented commercial banks have taken birth in rural India which popularly known as ‘Regional Rural Banks’. These banks penetrate every corner of the country and have been extending a helping hand in the growth of the economy. Despite the RRBs journeyed over three decades, they have achieved performance to the expected level quantitatively not turning towards sound financial management and productivity. Moreover the achieved performance is not uniform though they are working under the approach of same management. Effective performance is the success of every business. In order to achieve the effective and efficient performance, the RRBs have been taken up amalgamation process in the entire organization in the year 2005-06. Amalgamation of regional rural banks was considered to strengthen all the branches financially.&nbsp; In every line of business, the performance of each bank is appraised in financial perspectives and ranked them. In this paper an attempt is made to discuss the financial performance of selected regional rural banks during post reorganization period. To measure the financial soundness of selected sample banks, the CAMEL Model which is an appropriate technique is adopted. </em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/447 Access to Credit: Constraints for SMES 2022-01-13T13:40:17+00:00 Abou Bakar editor@ijcms.in Salman Majeed editor@ijcms.in <p align="justify"><em>Small medium enterprises (SMEs) are very important to the economy of Pakistan. Their failure rate at about 75% is one of the highest in the world. Lack of finance is one of the primary reasons for the failure of SMEs in Pakistan. Access to finance, was identified by the SMEs, as the single most important impediment to growth. The prime objective of the paper is to investigate the determinants of credit approval for new SMEs. </em><em>T</em><em>his research will help in evaluating the facts that what barriers come in SMEs financing. Moreover this research will also help the government to know that what it must have to do in order to increase the credit availability to SME’s. </em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India https://ijcms.in/index.php/ijcms/article/view/448 A Study on Effectiveness of Skill Development Programme for the Operators at Manufacturing Industries in Chennai 2022-01-13T13:43:36+00:00 Dr. K. Sethuraman editor@ijcms.in <p align="justify"><em>The main objective of this project is to determine the effectiveness of the Skill Development Training Programme provided at manufacturing industries in Chennai. The purpose of the research process is to provide guidelines and suggestions for improving and enhancing the existing training programme in the organization. The research design adopted for this study is Descriptive research. Primary data is used for the study. The primary data was collected through questionnaire with close ended questions. Analysis is done using Percentage analysis, Weighted Average method, Chi-square test and Weighted Rank method to derive the appropriate statistics on opinion of the employees. This study helps the management to improve the current training programme of the company.</em></p> 2011-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India