Indian Journal of Commerce and Management Studies <p>For the past ten years, We, <strong>Educational Research Multimedia and Publications, India</strong> exhibited true commitment and excellence in inculcating high-quality research which is recognized by UGC also. We are a proud publisher of research contributions from global authors in the areas of Arts, Commerce, Management, Education and Social Sciences. Being headed by a team of Eminent Scientists, Professors, Professionals, Researchers, Key Opinion Leaders, Industrialists, our board of management holds 25+ years of collective experience in publishing research and educational materials. Our publications are open-access, double-blind peer-reviewed, plagiarism-free, updated and application-oriented that suit the current trends.</p> <p><strong>Indian Journal of Commerce &amp; Management Studies </strong>is owned and managed by <strong>Educational Research Multimedia and Publications, India. </strong>IJCMS is an open access peer review Tri-Annual research journal that publishes articles in the field of commerce &amp; management. The journal serves as a bridge between worldwide scholars and commerce and management studies researchers. The journal publishes research articles and papers in all areas of commerce and management. The journal aims to provide the most complete and reliable source of information on recent developments in business studies. Each issue brings you critical perspectives and cogent analyses, serving as an outlet for the best theoretical and research work in the field. The purpose of the journal is to further the understanding of the theory and practice of business studies by publishing articles of interest to practitioners and scholars.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong> Call for Papers - Volume XIV, Issue 1, January 2023</strong></p> <p> Please submit to <a href=""></a> or<strong> <a href="">Click here</a> </strong>as per<strong> <a href="">Submission Guidelines</a></strong></p> Educational Research Multimedia & Publications en-US Indian Journal of Commerce and Management Studies 2249-0310 Inside the American Business Mind <p>.</p> Jonathan Poston M.E. Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 1 2 Study on Customer Perception towards Online-Ticketing in Malaysia <p align="justify"><em>This paper gives a report of a study that investigated peoples’ perception of online buying tickets (e-ticketing) as well as why some people use this facility while some who do not use it stick to the traditional way to fulfill their needs. In addition, factors such as what inform peoples’ eagerness and unwillingness to use internet facilities are also examined. The outcome of this research showed a comprehensively integrated framework that can be utilized by policy makers and business enterprises to understand the dynamic relationships among dimensions of perceived risk, user trustworthiness, usefulness, familiarity and confidence. Also, this study considered how price perception and internet security can be utilized to understand the consumers’ perception. However, further research is needed to examine these factors in Malaysia with additional samples before generalization can be made. Moreover, it is also necessary to review consumers’ purchasing behavior in making the decision to use the internet as a means of buying online rather than the traditional way.</em></p> Seyed Rajab Nikhashemi Farzana Yasmin Ahasanul Haque Ali Khatibi Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 3 13 Factors Influencing the Overall Customer Satisfaction of the Wireless Internet Service Users: An Empirical Study in Bangladesh <p align="justify"><em>With the rapid development of wireless internet technology and heavy usage of internet services, wireless internet service has been widely adopted in Bangladesh. </em><em>Although the subject of customer satisfaction has been discussed worldwide extensively in the literature of information systems, e-commerce and marketing, the exploration of antecedents to customer satisfaction with wireless internet service is still in its infancy in Bangladesh.</em><em> This study has explored and identified seven specific factors, which act as the significant determinants of the overall customer satisfaction of the wireless internet service users in Bangladesh. The findings confirm that Webpage Content Visualization, Availability of Customer Care Centre, Post-purchase Tele Sale, Average Download Data Rate, Participative Programs, Rate of Network Failure and Setup Charge contribute to forming the overall customer satisfaction with the wireless internet service in Bangladesh. This paper ends with a brief discussion of the business implications of the research findings.</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> Mujahid Mohiuddin Babu Panuel Rozario Prince Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 14 24 Day of Week Effect: Evidences from Indian Stock Market <p align="justify"><em>This study has been undertaken to examine whether day of week effect exist in Indian Stock Market or not. To analyses whether anomalies exist in India the data has been collected for the period form January 2008 to December 2009 for two indices: Sensex and Nifty. The results of this study show that the day of the week effect&nbsp; do not exist in the Indian Stock Market and this market can be considered as informationally efficient. Monday Effect and Friday Effect are also found insignificant while comparing Friday and Monday returns with other days mean returns. The above indicates that the Indian Stock Markets efficient now a days in years 2008 and 2009. The&nbsp; study suggest to investors&nbsp; that the non existence of anomalies may not provide opportunities to formulate profitable trading strategies so as to earn the abnormal return and can adopt a fair return for risk strategy</em><em>.</em></p> Dr. Sanjeet Sharma Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 25 30 National Culture and Team Role Preference: A Case of Pakistan <p align="justify"><em>The subject of Project Management has influenced the various fields of study including Development Sciences and Engineering Sciences. The researchers, academicians and practitioners have shown their curiosity and concerns about the challenges faced by the mainstream Project Management’s Concepts and tools. A consensus has developed to build the field from its current conceptual base to more practical oriented theory. The purpose of this research was two fold, firstly; to apply the Belbin Team Role Self Perception Inventory (BTRSPI) to the teams of Pakistan (graduate students) in order to investigate about the most emerging/preferred, (primary) team roles of the graduate students who were intended to serve various national and international companies, secondly; to ascertain the relationship between the team roles and culture of country. The result of the study validated most of the findings of Belbin (1981);Fisher et al (1998 ) and Dulewicz (1995). It was observed that among other factors, national culture influences the team role selection. The culture theory of Hofstede (1991) and Khilji (1999) elaborated the cultural reasons for the selection of the roles of coordinator, implementer, shaper and team workers in the context of Pakistani culture. It was also deliberated in the cultural context that why there are not more “Plants” roles in the student’s project teams in this country. It is very basic research aiming at drawing the attention of the academicians and practitioners to this particular topic</em><em>.</em></p> Ibn-e-Hassan Muhammad Shakil Ahmad Muhammad Jawad Iqbal Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 31 39 Bridging the Gap through E-Recruitment: Evidences from Private Employment Sector in Karachi <p align="justify"><em>Internet has proved as the most powerful social network that has deep impact on our society and has become catalyst in the process of globalization.&nbsp; Recent trends and data reveal that internet is being used in employment sector globally. Job searching through internet in Pakistan is deemed uncommon. This research measures the usage of internet for job searching in Pakistan which has not been investigated in Pakistan’s perspective before. The results assessed the positive trend of online job searching activities which develop considerably. Five motivators of Job seekers were consider in this study, “time saving” is the leading motivator followed by “browsing wide area of employment”, “global employment pool”, “easiness” and “cost effective” respectively. These motivators motivate job seekers to go for online search for employment. </em><em>The study recommends HR managers of Private sectors to focus more on online recruitment in Pakistan to attract large number of potential employees in less time and investing more on developing online recruitment tool to get large return on investment in long term perspective</em><em>.</em></p> Naveed Ur Rehman Khan Dr. S. M. Taha Arsalan Mujahid Ghouri Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 40 48 Value Added, Productivity and Performance of Few Selected Companies in Sri Lanka <p align="justify"><em>Productivity is a measure of the rate at which inputs are transformed in to output. Hence productivity provides the technical relationship that exists between inputs and outputs. </em><em>Productivity is actually looking at the more general issue of performance. Performance covers both overall economic and operational aspects. It can be described as the success of a company and its activities. So that value added, productivity and performance are closely inter connected. This paper attempt to measure the productivity of the 15 financial companies listed under the CSE using value added ratios such as (i) sales per employee ratio, (ii) labour cost to value added ratio, (iii) profit before tax to employee ratio, (iv) labour cost to sales ratio, and (vi) value added to employee ratio and to measure the performance with the ratios of (i) gross profit ratio,(ii) value added per rupee of fixed asset, (iii) return on capital employed, and (iv) </em><em>net profit ratio using data representing the period of 2005-2009. The study finds that </em><em>profit before tax per employee and value added per rupee of fixed asset (VAFA) is positively correlated and labour cost to sales (LS) and gross profit (GP) is also positively correlated. Further the labour cost to value added (LVA) is correlated with gross profit (GP) and value added per rupee of fixed asset and no relationship between the rest of the productivity and performance measures. R<sup>2</sup> value of 0.471, 0.315, 0.198 and 0.887 (In all for models) which are in the models denote that 47.1%, 31.5%, 19.8%, and 88.7% of the observed variability in GP, NP, ROCE, and VAFA respectively in all the independent variables such as SE,VE,PE,LS, and LVA. Remaining 52.9%, 68.5%, 80.2% and 11.3% of the variance in GP, NP, ROCE, and VAFA related to other variables which are not explained, because they are not depicted in the models</em><em>.</em></p> Prof. Dr .T. Velnampy Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 49 55 Global Financial Crisis and Life Insurance Sector in India – A Comparative Study of LIC with Private Sector <p align="justify"><em>Life insurance is a fast growing service sector in India during the last eleven years after the entrance of private sector in this field. The low penetration and low insurance density has made this sector as a fast developing sector in India. The insurance sector contributes 5.2 per cent of GDP in 2011. The global meltdown and&nbsp;&nbsp; consequent economic recession in developed economies have clearly been major&nbsp;&nbsp; factor in India’s economic slowdown. The saving nature of the Indian’s led the country in a better position even in the eve of global financial crisis. The&nbsp;&nbsp; insurance sector shows a setback during the years 2007-08 and 2008-09 due to the global meltdown. The life insurance sector had able to overcome the short time setback mainly because of the investment attitude of the people in the country and made the financial year 2009-10 in a growth stage .The&nbsp; results of the insurance companies during the year 2010-11 also show an upward trend. This clearly indicates that life insurance sector will continue to grow in future because of the peculiar nature of the inhabitants in the country and also due to huge untapped potential in this sector in the country. The increase in</em><em> disposable income, aging population, no universal life cover and tax benefits to life insurance products make life insurance market an attractive proposition for insurance companies.</em> <em>The crisis made the insurance companies more competitive in their products and efficient&nbsp;&nbsp; in their administration leads to better products to the consumers.</em><em>Untapped rural markets, lower consumer preference and constrained distribution channels are understood to be the reasons for the lower levels of penetration. And more reforms will certainly make this growing sector appear more attractive for existing and newer participants.</em></p> Dr.Venugopalan K.V. Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 56 61 An Analysis of Indian Financial System and Its Effect over Indian Economy <p align="justify"><em>The financial system develops a link in between savings and investment through its various components like financial institutions, financial markets, financial services etc., thereby channelizing the funds or flow of funds from the ultimate lender to ultimate borrower and thereby paving ways for economic development. </em><em>The current analysis is focusing on the Indian Financial System and its role in the economic development of the nation. The saving and investment pattern and its effect of the GDP the capital formation and its importance for the economic growth and the credit creation theory that helps to understand the link of financial system to the economic growth. The current paper also focuses on the patterns of relationship between economic development and financial system. It is an attempt to understand the symbiotic relationship between the financial system and economic development. </em></p> Ghausia Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 62 67 An Empirical Study on the Impulsive Buying Behavior in Women and Factors Affecting Such Behavior <p align="justify"><em>Consumer Studies is a very explorative field and the purpose of this study is to establish a link between growing number of facilities provided to the consumers and increase in their impulsive (unplanned) buying experiences. The research was started with the basic objective to study the buying behavior of women with special references to their unplanned buying experiences. The association of such provocational factors and their impact on working and non-working women were studied. A structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents and responses were generated from various locations in Raipur city (capital city of Chhattisgarh State). </em><em>Various statistical tools were used to find out the associations for such an instant behavior. The study reveals the impulse buying behavior in women and the driving forces behind such a behavior on occupational basis. </em></p> Mrs. Prerna Nair Mrs. Jaya B. Rathor Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 68 72 Supply Chain Performance Improvement <p align="justify"><em>This Paper deals with business renovation, effective utilization of Information technology and the role of business process modelling in supply Chain integration projects. The main idea is to show how the performance of the supply chain can be improved with the integration of various tiers in the Supply Chain. Integration is prerequisite for effective sharing and utilization of information between different companies in the chain. Simulation –based Methodology for measuring the benefits combine the simulation of business Processes with the simulation of supply and demand. The theoretical Findings are illustrated with the case study of procurement process in petrol Company. Old and renewed business process models are shown. The changes in lead-times, process execution costs, and quality of the process and Inventory costs are estimated</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></strong></p> Dr. Suresh Reddy Jakka M. Madhu Mohan Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 73 77 Delegation and Coordination: Tools for Effective School Management <p align="justify"><em>There is an increasing awareness around the world for incorporating professional management into traditional public services. Similar trend has been encompassing the school education sector in the form of school based management. It would be appropriate to analyze the prevailing practices of school management in the context of similar reforms being initiated in India. This paper is an integral part of the doctoral dissertation in management area – ‘A study of Management Practices of Secondary Schools’. The objective of this paper is to explore the status of delegation and coordination aspects of school management. A sample of 188 secondary schools was selected through stratified sampling technique. The primary data was collected through self designed questionnaire and interview schedules. Chi-Square Test and simple percentages were used to analyze the data with the help of SPSS-17. The findings reveal that more delegation to be facilitated by the educational administrators. Despite the dearth of coordination committees, the nature of coordination between the school head and staff and among the staff members is good. The study suggests the policy makers to facilitate faster reforms and enhance accountability</em><em>.</em></p> Dr. Purna Prabhakar Nandamuri Dr.K.V.Rao Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 78 82 The Impact of Career Choice on Job Satisfaction among Employees in Ghana <p align="justify"><em>This research was designed to investigate the relationship that exists between career choice and job satisfaction among employees in Ghana. Data was collected from 280 employees working in different organisations including Banking, Telecommunication, Education and Health sectors. The relationship between Career choice and Career satisfaction was tested using chi-square. It was found that employees who make the right career choice are more likely to be satisfied with their job. The relationship between job satisfaction and employee performance was also tested using chi-square. The results provided direct evidence that employees who are satisfied with their job are more likely to perform well on the job. Also, the results support the view that internal and external factors including personality type should be considered in making career decisions. Accordingly, employees are encouraged to have a sober reflection on their core interests and abilities before making a career choice. They should ensure that the fundamental factors that will guarantee job satisfaction and positive performance, serve as motivators in the career decision making process. Likewise, employers should be interested in interest tests as a selection tool for new employees</em><em>.</em></p> Evans Sokro Noble Osei-Bonsu Ruby Melody Agbola Ebenezer Ankrah Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 83 88 Intrapreneurship as Competitive Strategy for Talent Retention – Facilitating Factors and the Indian Context <p align="justify"><em>Intrapreneurship is possibly the best way to keep talented staff, promote creativity, and optimally use company resources. Intrapreneurship in business today encompasses a variety of concepts which include: identifying and fostering employees who have intrapreneurial traits, developing an intrapreneurial process followed by organization wide dissemination of information regarding the process and developing innovation through rewarding intrapreneurial behaviour. In India, most of the companies operate stable businesses quite efficiently, but what is lacking is developing a new business from the idea stage through to research and development and successful commercialization. The organization’s capacity to innovate is greatly diminished because of the failure to identify, support and encourage innovative ideas which can be turned out to successful commercial products and services. Employees who feel that their innovative ideas are not given due recognition quit their jobs to start enterprises of their own. With India, becoming a preferred destination of MNC’s, and the economy expanding, attracting and retaining talent is a source of competitive advantage. The need of the hour is for people who are creators rather than followers. One feature of the organization that promotes intrapreneurship is that it encourages and successfully implements enough creative ideas to make a surplus of fruitful opportunities for all its employees. This paper discusses the evolution of the concept of intrapreneurship, previous studies and view points of experts, the need for intrapreneuship, the benefits of intrapreneurship to the company and employees, few cases of successful intrapreneurship in organisations and the intrapreneurial scenario in the Indian context</em><em>.</em></p> Dr. C. Barathi Dr. C. D. Balaji Dr. CH. Ibohal Meitei Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 89 95 Relationship between Service Quality and Behavioural Consequences in Telecom Sector <p align="justify"><em>The influence of service quality and customer satisfaction on complaint behaviour has rarely been studied to date. However, for effective service recovery, it is imperative to know who ends the relationship, who recommends the others to go for the service provider and who complains to the company. This paper provides a framework on how three loyalty types react to a critical incident causing dissatisfaction. Truly loyal customers are expected to complain instead of leaving, whereas disloyal consumers will prefer to choose exit. </em><em>Considering loyalty for explaining complaining behaviour will support managers in develo-ping effective customer care concepts as well as focusing on the most valuable customers, the truly loyal and profitable ones</em><em>.</em></p> Dr. Sandhya Joshi Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 96 101 Factors Effecting Patient Satisfaction in Private Sector Hospitals: A Case Study of West Bengal <p align="justify"><em>Satisfaction of the customers in the private sector hospital service depends on a set of factors including the physical factors like quality of treatment rendered to the patients, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, tangibles i.e. convenience created psychological factors like care taken cost to the patients and monetary factors like the cost required to access the services provided by the hospitals. Based on a field survey data collected from the privately owned hospitals in West Bengal, the present study aims to identify the factors responsible for patient satisfaction and thereby to gauge its effect on the brand-image of the hospitals. The study clearly shows a strong association between the factors such as care, quality of treatment and cost of service with the customers i.e., patients satisfaction. The study concludes a paradigm shift in the Indian hospital industry as the customer preference to choose a service is changing</em><em>. </em></p> Soumik Gangopadhyay Dr. Bidyut Kumar Ghosh Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 102 106 Leverage and Financing Decision –An Empirical Analysis <p align="justify"><em>In the process of selection of a target debt-equity mix, a company analyses a number of factors, one of such factors is the consideration of leverage. The management employs this tool, more often than not, to increase the company’s return on net worth and more so when it is impossible to improve operating efficiency of the company and increasing the return on total investment. The study is divided into two parts- conceptual framework and case study. In the present article an endeavor has been made to through some light on the business risk, financial risk, financial break-even point and total risk of Hindustan Construction Company Limited by means of computing the degree of association between the various leverage ratios with the well-known profitability indicator viz. return on net worth (RONW), and statistical test viz.‘t’ test has been used to test the significance of the results of the empirical study. Ultimately, the article concludes with some valid recommendations which deserve the attention of the concerned company under study and government.&nbsp; </em></p> Aniruddha Sarkar Suvarun Goswami Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 107 113 A Study on Performance Evaluation of Dinesh Mills Ltd <p align="justify"><em>This paper aims at evaluating the performance of Dinesh Mills Ltd in terms of comparative and common size income statements. The trend is also projected for the next five years. The study reveals that there was a significant increase in the reported net profit during the year 2006-07. This was because of significant reduction in the in the material cost and employee cost. There was also economy There is also economy in power and fuel cost during the same period. The company has to pay more attention in maintain/reducing power and fuel so as to have increased wealth to the shareholders</em><em>.</em></p> Dr. Sanjay J. Bhayani Dr. Butalal Ajmera Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 114 123 Evaluating Performance of Regional Rural Banks: An Application of Camel Model <p align="justify"><em>The regional rural banks would be a ‘model financial infrastructure’ for rural development with patronage and encouragement given by planners in the field. Thus, the State sponsored, regionally based and rural oriented commercial banks have taken birth in rural India which popularly known as ‘Regional Rural Banks’. These banks penetrate every corner of the country and have been extending a helping hand in the growth of the economy. Despite the RRBs journeyed over three decades, they have achieved performance to the expected level quantitatively not turning towards sound financial management and productivity. Moreover the achieved performance is not uniform though they are working under the approach of same management. Effective performance is the success of every business. In order to achieve the effective and efficient performance, the RRBs have been taken up amalgamation process in the entire organization in the year 2005-06. Amalgamation of regional rural banks was considered to strengthen all the branches financially.&nbsp; In every line of business, the performance of each bank is appraised in financial perspectives and ranked them. In this paper an attempt is made to discuss the financial performance of selected regional rural banks during post reorganization period. To measure the financial soundness of selected sample banks, the CAMEL Model which is an appropriate technique is adopted. </em></p> Dr. D. Maheshwara Reddy K. V. N. Prasad Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 124 128 Access to Credit: Constraints for SMES <p align="justify"><em>Small medium enterprises (SMEs) are very important to the economy of Pakistan. Their failure rate at about 75% is one of the highest in the world. Lack of finance is one of the primary reasons for the failure of SMEs in Pakistan. Access to finance, was identified by the SMEs, as the single most important impediment to growth. The prime objective of the paper is to investigate the determinants of credit approval for new SMEs. </em><em>T</em><em>his research will help in evaluating the facts that what barriers come in SMEs financing. Moreover this research will also help the government to know that what it must have to do in order to increase the credit availability to SME’s. </em></p> Abou Bakar Salman Majeed Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 129 132 A Study on Effectiveness of Skill Development Programme for the Operators at Manufacturing Industries in Chennai <p align="justify"><em>The main objective of this project is to determine the effectiveness of the Skill Development Training Programme provided at manufacturing industries in Chennai. The purpose of the research process is to provide guidelines and suggestions for improving and enhancing the existing training programme in the organization. The research design adopted for this study is Descriptive research. Primary data is used for the study. The primary data was collected through questionnaire with close ended questions. Analysis is done using Percentage analysis, Weighted Average method, Chi-square test and Weighted Rank method to derive the appropriate statistics on opinion of the employees. This study helps the management to improve the current training programme of the company.</em></p> Dr. K. Sethuraman Copyright (c) 2011 ERM Publications, India 2011-09-30 2011-09-30 2 6 133 137